Almost any set of accounting records involves the receiving in and paying out of money, sometimes cheques, sometimes cash and sometimes both will be recorded in cash book entries. If there are only a very few entries, it may all be recorded in the bank account and cash account in the nominal ledger, but due to the number of entries it is usual to maintain a separate book (A separate cash account in ledger book) by cash book entry. Sometimes bank and cash are combined in one book and sometimes two books are kept. actually cash is blood and energy of an business. so that, A clear and updated of cash book statement is very important for managers.
When you can have a perfect cash flow statement if you recorded exact and true journal entries of cash transactions.
What is Cash Book
As the cash books are a medium of posting to the Nominal ledger, they are books of prime entry. Sometimes the cash book is just a posting medium and sometimes a running balance is maintained as an integral part of the system. so recording a clear journal of cashes is very important to have the best cash flow reports.
Manual Cash book examples
An entry example of the payments that maintained for bank entries. all amounts of accounts has been wrote by hand on paper as a manual cash book
The total of £398.79 would be credited to the bank account in the nominal ledger (remember payments out of a bank account are credits).
What is Folio numbers in manual cash book
Various accounts are debited and these are identified by the folio numbers. folio numbers could are any word and summary of a word, usually s will be used for sales, and so on …
- S: Sales Invoices
- J: General journal entry
- P: Purchase Entry
- CR: Cash receipt
- CP: Cash payment
- QP: Check payment
- QR: Check receipt
- WS: Wire money sent
- WR: Wired money receipt
In reality there maybe hundreds of entries or perhaps many more. The posting may be made easier by analyzing the payment amounts over extra columns. If there are three entries for bank charges, only the total of the bank charges need be posted, rather than three individual items.
The following exceptionally simple illustration shows how three extra columns could be added in support of the above five payments.
This means that only three debits need be posted instead of five. In a significant business the reduction in the number of postings might be very large.
There will be a corresponding side for the receipts, but as the principles are the same it is not necessary to show an illustration. The next example shows a full cash book balanced at the month end.
The folios identify the accounts to be posted as the opposite side of the double entry. Various identification systems may be encountered but you will probably have no difficulty realizing that “SL” means sales ledger and that PL means purchase ledger.
This is a completed cash book for the month of September and the book has been ruled off and balanced. The balancing may be done at any time but once a month is typical. It is done by adding the columns and writing in the difference on the side that has the smaller of the two figures. This is expressed as the balance carried down. The two columns then add to the same amount.
The balancing figure is then transferred to the other column and becomes the opening balance in the next period.
In the example the balance brought down (bid) on 1 September is on the receipts side which means that there is money in the bank and no overdraft. This is still the position when the account is balanced on 30 September.
The four figure numbers before the names on the payments side are cheque numbers. This is optional and will assist when the bank reconciliation is done.
Following is an extremely simple example of a cash book that combines both cash entries and bank entries. It shows receipts and payments for both and it is balanced for both. For the sake of simplicity the pence have been omitted and only the pounds are shown.
Finally it should be mentioned that -cash books sometimes incorporate discount columns. This is for discounts deducted by customers because they have paid within the permitted period, and for discounts deducted from payments by the business for the same reason. In practice, as you may know, settlement discount is often deducted although the settlement terms have not been properly observed. Policing the system causes many practical problems and dilemmas. Sales managers are often reluctant to have their customers annoyed by requests for additional payments.
How to maintain cash book
The cash book will have two sides, one for payments (Credit) and one for receipts (Debit). It means when you receive money so that, your cash account will be debit and reverse.
In the most business and trading companies, there are more than one cash account. For example, maybe there are petty cash, cash on hand, cash in wire, …
Also, petty cash could has some sub groups in hands of different staffs like receptions, salesperson, cleaning section and more.
Ledger book is the best place to categorize accounts of cash truly as you see in below photo (chart of accounts in Invoitop accounting software)
Real Practice of Cash Book Entry
To do cash book entries in journal as payment and receipt money in a real accounting software ( iGreen Accounting )
Note: in iGreen accounting, when you using cash receipt form or cash payment form, you don’t need to enter a journal entry separately and this type of entry will be done by iGreen as accounting standard.