Nature and Classification of Costs
Cost accounting may be defined as the process of measuring, analyzing, computing and reporting the cost, profitability and performance of operations in manufacturing. This can be contrasted to earlier definitions which limited cost accounting to “obtaining a figure representing
the cost of a manufactured product.”
The nature of modern business is such that all enterprises-whether large or small, manufacturing or non-manufacturing, public or private, profit or nonprofit-require a wide variety of cost data in making day-to-day operating decisions. Thus, for the modern cost accountant, the positive
emphasis on analysis and interpretation (managerial cost accounting) requires involvement in the dynamic phase of business-the current period and the future. The dynamic phase is concerned primarily with planning (i.e., selecting objectives and the means for their attainment) and controlling (i.e., achieving conformity to established plans).
Classification of Costs
Classification of costs is necessary in order to determine the most suitable method of accumulating and allocating cost data. The principal methods of accumulating costs are described below.
Functions of Cost accounting
- Manufacturing: Costs applied to producing a product.
- Marketing: Costs incurred in selling a product or service. Administrative: Costs incurred in policy-making activities.
- Financial: Costs related to financial activities.
Elements in cost accounting
Direct material: Material which is an integral part of the finished product.
Direct labor: Labor applied directly to components of the finished product.
Factory overhead: Indirect materials, indirect labor, and the manufacturing expenses that cannot logicallybe charged directly to specific units, jobs, or products.
Direct: Costs which are charged to the product and require no further allocation.
Indirect: Costs which are allocated.
Production: A unit in which operations are performed on the part or product and whose costs are not further allocated.
Service: A unit not directly engaged in production and whose costs are ultimately allocated to a production unit.
When Charged to Income
Product: Costs included when product costs, as defined above, are computed. Product costs are included in inventory and in cost of sales when the product is sold.
Period: Costs associated with the passage of time rather than with the product. These are closed out to the income summary each period since no future benefits are expected.
Relation to Volume
Variable: Costs which change in total in direct proportion to changes in related activity. The unit cost remains
the same regardless of volume. Fixed. Costs which do not change in total over wide ranges of volume. The unit costs decrease as volume increases.
Capital. Costs which are expected to benefit future periods and are classed as assets.
Revenue. Costs which benefit only the current period and are thus expenses.
Degree of Averaging
Total. The cumulative cost for the established category.
Unit. The total cost divided by the number of units of activity or volume.