Costs that are assigned to cost objects can be divided into two broad categories Direct and Indirect costs. Both categories can be further divided into direct and indirect material costs, and direct and indirect labour costs Each of these categories is discussed in the following sections.
Direct materials represent those material costs that can be specifically and exclusively identified with a particular cost object. Where the production of products or the provision of services represent the cost object, the cost of direct materials can be directly charged to the products or services because physical observation can be used to measure
the quantity consumed by each individual product or service. in other words, direct materials become part of a physical product or are used in providing a service. For example, wood used in the manufacture of different types of furniture can be directly identified with each specific type of furniture such as chairs, tables and bookcases.
As with direct materials. direct labour costs represent those labour costs that can be specifically and exclusively identified with a particular cost object Physical observation can be used to measure the quantity of labour used to produce a specific product or provide a service. The direct labour cost in producing a product includes the cost of
converting the raw materials into a product, such as the workers on an assembly line at Nissan Cars or machine operatives engaged in the production process in the manufacture of televisions. The direct labour cost used to provide a service includes the labour costs in providing a service that can be specifically identified with an individual client in a firm of accountants or the labour costs that can be identified with a specific repair in a firm that repairs computers.
Indirect costs cannot be identified specifically and exclusively with a given cost object. They consist of indirect labour, materials and expenses. Where products are the cost object the wages of all employees whose time cannot be identified with a specific product represent Examples include the labour cost of staff employed in
the maintenance and repair of production equipment and staff employed in the stores department. The cost of materials used to repair machinery cannot be identified with a specific product and can therefore be classified as Examples of indirect expenses, where products or the provision of a service are the cost objects, include lighting and heating expenses and property taxes. These costs cannot be specifically identified with a particular product or service
The term overheads is widely used instead of indirect costs. In a manufacturing organization overhead costs are categorized as either manufacturing administration and marketing (or selling) overheads include all the costs oi
manufacturing apart from direct labour and material costs. Administrative overheads consist of all costs associated with the general administration of the organization that cannot be assigned to either manufacturing, marketing or distribution overheads.
Examples of overheads
- Top-executive salaries costs
- General accounting costs
- Secretarial costs
- Research and development costs
Those costs that are necessary to market and distribute a product or service are categorized as marketing (selling) costs. These costs are also known as order-getting and order-filling costs. Examples of marketing costs include advertising sales personnel salaries/commissions, warehousing and delivery transportation costs.
This image illustrates the various classifications of manufacturing and non-manufacturing costs. You will see from this figure that two further classifications of manufacturing costs are sometimes used. consists of all direct manufacturing costs (i.e. it is the sum of direct material and direct labour costs) is the sum of direct labour and manufacturing overhead costs. It represents the cost of converting raw materials into finished products.
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